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Friday, February 19, 2016

Bed Bug Dogs can't find Dead Bed Bugs NJ 732-640-5488

Bed Bug Dogs can't find Dead Bed Bugs Middlesex County NJ?

YET THEY FIND LIVE BED BUG ON 10 minute inspection!

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Call now for a Consultation and Inspection 732-640-5488







 
 
 
 
 
 
K9 INSPECTION A SCAM?
 
 
  1. brooklyn_upallnight
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 17:16:48
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    Had my home inspected by a k-9 yesterday. In my opinion, k-9 inspection doesn't work. Why?
    1. K-9 detection is limited to adult bed bugs. The k-9 will not positively identify the scent of a bed bug unless it's an adult bed bug. The k-9 does not identify nymphs or bed bug eggs.
    2. The k-9 needs to be prompted. The k-9 needs to be prompted by the k-9 technician to smell a particular area. I was under the impression that the dog would roam a small area of the room and indicate if the bed bug scent is sourced in that area. It turns out that the k-9 inspector has to tap his fingers on the specific area that needs to be sniffed in order for the dog to start put its nose to it, directly.
    3. The k-9 can only detect within a 6 inch radius of its nose. If there are bed bugs 10 inches away from the area that the k-9 technician tapped his fingers, the dog won't be able to detect the scent of bed bugs. In other words, the dog's nose needs to be directly on a hidden ADULT BED BUG in order for the process to work.
    This process is complete rubbish.
    So, the k-9 technician hid a vile of the bed bugs. Then tapped other areas of the room for the dog to sniff. He eventually came around to tapped where the vile was hidden and it took for the dog to sniff the area 5 times in order to indicate that it smelled bed bugs by sitting down (the PCO informed me that the dog is trained to sit in front of the area harboring bed bugs). The dog was given some dog food as a reward. You see, the dog doesn't eat unless it detects the scent of bed bugs. This demonstration was meant to reassure me that the dog was able to detect bed bugs.
    What's funny is that about an hour after the k-9 tech removed the vile, the dog was let loose in my home as the technician and I were chatting. The dog roamed around and then went back to where the vile of bed bugs had been hidden and later removed, it sniffed the area a few times, sat down and then looked up at the k-9 technician expectantly.
    Are you thinking what I am thinking? The dog is hungry. The dog is clever. Now, why have we as humans resorted to relying on these adorable, clever dogs? Why are k-9 technicians able to get a license by taking a 40 hour course and buying a $3,000 dog?
    The k-9 technician is really a construction worker who only received his k-9 certification in November 2010 and doesn't have much experience with pest control. When he saw my packtite, he didn't even know what it was and had never heard of one. He also didn't know that bed bugs have 5 stages, and need to feed in order to molt from one stage to the next.
    This process and the technician is more than likely a scam.
  2. toledo
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 18:19:01
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    My experience wasn't the best either. Money down the drain! I do believe that some dogs can detect BBs. Always ask the handler to visually confirm when a dog marks. Show me the bed bugs!
  3. brooklyn_upallnight
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 18:24:36
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    Hi toledo,
    The k-9 technician kept saying, "Show me the bed bugs," and "Show me better," to the dog. But after flipping the couch over and inspecting every inch, the tech found nothing visually except fecal marks. Sad.
    Thanks for your supportive post!
  4. toledo
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 18:46:19
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    Well, the dog did find fecal marks. That's something! My Cincinnati dog handler made no effort to find anything. He just asked me ahead of time where I found the bugs and then miraculously, that was the exact spot his dog marked. I tried my own test with a live bed bug stuck to a piece of tape. The dog couldn't find it.
  5. KillerQueen
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 20:14:17
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    Brooklyn,
    While I'm no fan of K9 detection, I'll tell you this, just about everything you stated is incorrect. I'll leave it for the K9 handlers/trainers here but just so you know .. your post is way off target.
  6. DougSummersMS
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 20:19:45
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    brooklyn_upallnight - 2 hours ago  » 
    Had my home inspected by a k-9 yesterday. In my opinion, k-9 inspection doesn't work. Why?
    1. K-9 detection is limited to adult bed bugs. The k-9 will not positively identify the scent of a bed bug unless it's an adult bed bug. The k-9 does not identify nymphs or bed bug eggs.
    2. The k-9 needs to be prompted. The k-9 needs to be prompted by the k-9 technician to smell a particular area. I was under the impression that the dog would roam a small area of the room and indicate if the bed bug scent is sourced in that area. It turns out that the k-9 inspector has to tap his fingers on the specific area that needs to be sniffed in order for the dog to start put its nose to it, directly.
    3. The k-9 can only detect within a 6 inch radius of its nose. If there are bed bugs 10 inches away from the area that the k-9 technician tapped his fingers, the dog won't be able to detect the scent of bed bugs. In other words, the dog's nose needs to be directly on a hidden ADULT BED BUG in order for the process to work.
    I'm not sure about the source of your information, but the assertions listed above in quotes are all false.
    1) A properly trained K9 can detect all life stages... eggs, nymphs and adult bed bugs... This is a well established fact.
    2) Many handlers direct the inspection with hand signals to ensure that all areas of interest are checked by the K9... The dog is quite capable of detecting bed bugs without prompting... It sounds like you were dealing with an inexperienced handler.
    3)The K9s nose does not need to be within six inches of an adult bed bug... Dogs can detect bed bugs at much greater distances... We routinely hide vials of bed bugs in locations that are 6 - 8 feet above the floor during training.
    The size and shape of the scent cone is variable and asymmetrical... The distance will depend on several factors such as air movement and level of infestation... I try to get my K9 within a couple feet of any area of interest in an occupied unit.
    The going rate for a properly trained K9 is closer to $10,000... If the dog in question cost 3K... You are likely dealing with someone that that was not trained by one of the established K9 providers.
    The key active ingredient for a K9 team is the skill of the handler... Not understanding the basic biology of bed bug development is unacceptable for a PMP that specializes in bed bug inspections.
    I'm sorry that you had a bad experience, but I have to take issue with the claim that K9 inspection is a scam.
    A properly handled K9 is an accurate tool... The problems you described are related to handling skill... not food reward... The critical issue is the relationship between the K9 and the handler.
  7. djames1921
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 20:34:34
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    Brooklyn,
    Sorry you had a bad experience, but their are good handlers out there with great dogs that are just as horrified by your experience as you were, Doug and others work very hard to train and use dogs appropriately, try not to let the one bad apple spoil the bunch. I hate to hear when bbug sufferers get poor service/products you have enough to deal with as it is.
  8. brooklyn_upallnight
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 22:39:53
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    KillerQueen - Thank you for your input. The k-9 and k-9 technician were obviously inexperienced.
    djames1921 - Well, one apple did spoil the bunch. Thank you for your post and your empathy for my difficult position. Now it's up to me to convince my leasing company to employ another k-9 inspection service. Tenants who are dealing with bed bugs may lose the ability to have their extermination costs covered by the leasing company if the report from the k-9 inspection does not provide evidence of an infestation. At this stage in his career, the k-9 technician should be in an apprenticeship or internship with a prominent and established k-9 bed bug detection firm. This inexperienced k-9 technician is adversely affecting the consumer's trust of k-9 inspection.
    DougSummersMS - Thanks for your post. The question is: What are more established k-9 operators such as yourself doing to protect the consumer's trust of the k-9 industry? There should be a crackdown on these 40 hour seminars which are creating a distrust for your otherwise invaluable service. Maybe you should post faq's and guidelines about k-9 pest inspection in order to empower consumers with the specific industry standards for k-9 operation.
  9. brooklyn_upallnight
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 22:49:14
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    DougSummersMS - Also, the source of my information was the k-9 operator. The operator conducted his inspection 5 times allowing the dog to work for half an hour and rest in his car between "searches". During the breaks of this tiresome inspection, I asked him specific questions about the k-9 industry, his training, the origin of the dog, and the methods he was using to inspect. It turned out that I knew a lot more about bed bugs than the operator, and apparently this operator and k-9 were poorly trained.
    I would suggest that every consumer out there educate himself on bed bugs thoroughly before a PCO or k-9 led inspection takes place in his home. I had the confidence to ask specific questions because I have become well-versed on the topic.
    The passive consumer does not stand a chance in this money-making bed bug industry. Not a chance!
  10. Nobugsonme
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Wed Apr 20 2011 23:46:07
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    Hi brooklyn,
    I'm sorry you had this experience.
    As others have noted, dogs can detect bed bugs, but all dogs and handlers are not equally skilled. Many handlers don't even visually inspect.
    Bedbugger has a canine scent detection FAQ.
    I started and run the site but am "not an expert."
  11. cilecto
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 9:51:55
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    @KQ. Is is safe to say that your reaction to "Brooklyn" was that the information given to him by the handler was way off base (and s/he's right to be skeptical), rather than that Brooklyn was wrong? Controversies over canine detection notwithstanding, could this one have been a purebred scam?
    Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night...
    - Psalms 91:5-7

    (Not an pro)
  12. KillerQueen
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 12:04:25
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    Yes, Brooklyn is the consumer and was misinformed by the "professional" hired to conduct the inspection. He/she only knows what they are told or reads on the net. I wouldn't expect the consumer to know everything bed bug related. You call a professional to help resolve an issue. Its bad business when you hire somebody and get the results mentioned above.
    I work behind many dogs in the field and see this all day long. I can't stand when a person has to have 2 inspections to figure out what is going on. I can't even tell you how many times a person calls my office after a K9 inspection and is looking for treatment without solid evidence of an infestation. The media (and now the NPMA) push how accurate the dogs are at finding bed bugs, AND THEY ARE when trained properly. But the problem is the handler that will not confirm the "hit" and this will leave the honest PCO wondering if they really have a bed bug problem.
    6 months ago about 60% of people looking for bed bug inspections didn't have a bed bug problem. The number for me is now about 80% because of the media attention with bed bugs. I know the dog can find a bed bug, but show me evidence that the dog is right! Without it, you increase the number of false positives in the field.
    Example; I was called by a married woman with 2 children last week. Both adults had bites and the building sent over a K9 for an inspection. The K9 "hit" on the master bed but not the sofa in the living room. No visual confirmation, no effort to look at all. They had another guy come back in to do a visual and this guy told them they have nothing, NO BED BUGS. They decided to move forward with treatment and the next guy who came in for the treatment found nothing either. This guy did a full on Bed Bug treatment, told them he found nothing, and told them they didn't have bed bugs.
    Fast forward to my turn ... I don't know what to think with 2 people getting bit. I'm not going to do a treatment without evidence, despite a "hit" from a K9. Well, I went in and pulled 8 Bed Bugs out of the sofa during my inspection. If you can't find bed bugs during a treatment, you will most likely fail at that treatment.
    Now, was the dog wrong? Probably not. The problem was the handler, the guy who did the visual inspection, and the third guy who did the treatment. The point is a person should not have to go through all this to get an insect problem solved. They shouldn't have to go to the internet to find out everything they need to know about bed Bugs. They should be able to call on 1 company and trust that everything they need to know will be taken care of.
    So is short, 80% of people looking for bed bug inspections don't have bed bugs.
    I have yet to be impressed by any handler that can confirm, visually, a low level infestation after a dog has alerted to a problem.
    I see false negatives and positives on a daily bases and its always the fault of the handler. Even if the dog was trained by the best trainers in the field, a lot of handlers destroy the accuracy of the dog within weeks of purchasing them.
    And I know the dog can find them .... I have never disputed that. My problem is on the other end of the leash.
    Brooklyn was a victim of a bad inspection. I educate people all day long and whether I'm holding a leash or a can of poisson, if you are in this business, you better know what you're talking about.
  13. cilecto
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 12:37:54
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    A can of poisson? Are we getting snooty about our "poulet de la mer", now?
  14. Exterminator Toronto
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 13:26:54
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    Hi Brooklyn,
    Your not the only one having issues with K9 detection, but it is not because the K9's don't work... they do! Due to the high demand for this service many extermination companies are getting dogs and many independent companies are starting up. I also suspect that the dog training facilities are under pressure to supply the dogs to fill the industry need. I am aware of one training facility where the course for the dog and handler which was originally 5 days has been reduced to 3. The handler and the dog are a team and experience is an important factor. I also suspect that some pest control companies are may not be concerned with accurate K9 inspection and are looking to sell a pest control service as well as the K9 inspection. I don't want people to get the wrong idea, I support K9 inspection and have seen it done very successfully many times. The issue is who to trust? Certification of these dogs means very little in my opinion, that was a measure of performance at a certain point in time and the dogs need continuous training. We am currently using a dog that has no certification from any organization but the handler and the K9 are very experienced. Sorry for the bad experience you have had, K9 detection does work well when performed by an experienced team.
  15. Nobugsonme
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 13:57:05
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    cilecto - 1 hour ago  » 
    A can of poisson? Are we getting snooty about our "poulet de la mer", now?
    If they're trying to kill bed bugs with a can of fish, things are worse even than I thought.
    Nice catch, Ci.
  16. Nobugsonme
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 13:59:26
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    Exterminator Toronto - 31 minutes ago  » 
    We am currently using a dog that has no certification from any organization but the handler and the K9 are very experienced. Sorry for the bad experience you have had, K9 detection does work well when performed by an experienced team.
    Exterminator,
    Does your k9 handler visually confirm all dog alerts by searching for evidence?
  17. brooklyn_upallnight
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 15:37:31
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    Exterminator Toronto, Nobugsoneme, & Killer Queen,
    Thank you for your professional opinion and your support! I have researched each of you and found that you are truly experts in your field. You are doing a great service to tenants, homeowners, and property managers through your generosity on this website. You inspire me to be more generous through providing free services in my field of expertise.
    At this point my leasing company is refusing to pay for further extermination due to the fact that the k-9 inspection did not find a live bug.
    The inexperienced k-9 handler is unintentionally doing more damage than he is aware of. The k-9 handler is:
    1. Tarnishing the image of the k-9 industry
    2. Preventing tenants from getting treatment in a timely manner in order to avoid suffering
    3. Preventing the leasing company and/or landlord from controlling the spread of an infestation to surrounding apartments; and
    4. Potentially costing the landlord and multiple tenants thousands of dollars in future treatment of major infestation and replacing infested furniture
    Though this is probably not what the k-9 handler or PCO intended, because they are decent and kind people, the only party who stands to benefit from this false negative is the routine PCO and the k-9 handler that he recommended. Repeat visits to this apartment building will be costly for the landlord, yet financially beneficial to the pest control teams.
    My only option is to request that the landlord send another k-9 inspection team. It breaks my heart to ruin that inexperienced k-9 operator's career by complaining about his sub-standard practices, but too much is at stake.
    Thanks again, guys!
  18. cilecto
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 15:58:49
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    @Brooklyn
    I think the best you can do is set up your own detectors and learn to to your own inspections. There's a good guide on the Resources page that I recommend. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/emergingdiseases/Bed_Bug_Manual_v1_full_reduce_326605_7.pdf Also, there are Jeff White's videos on BedBugCentral.com or Austin Frishman's on YouTube. Even if you don't find bugs right away, if infested, you'll find poop marks. Your LL's dog should not be the last word on your infestation. NYC has relatively pro tenant laws and a decent tenant activist safety net. If you find evidence, you should be able to challenge the landlord.
    Nobugsonme - 2 hours ago  » 
    cilecto - 1 hour ago  » 
    A can of poisson? Are we getting snooty about our "poulet de la mer", now?
    If they're trying to kill bed bugs with a can of fish, things are worse even than I thought.
    Nice catch, Ci.
    High School French
    "Poisson sans boisson, c'est poison!"
  19. DougSummersMS
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 16:21:31
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    Brooklyn,
    I sent a PM to you.
    I think that you may want to consider bed bug monitoring systems at this point.
    A monitor can help us acquire a physical specimen that will document the presence of live activity.
    Bed Bug Beacon and BB Alert Passive monitors will work around the clock to capture a specimen to produce the necessary evidence for your management company.
  20. brooklyn_upallnight
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Thu Apr 21 2011 19:11:40
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    Cilecto & DougSummerMS,
    Thanks for the great idea! It'll take work (I'm exhausted), but I will have to start my own bed bug monitoring system in order to catch a specimen. Hopefully it'll be enough for my management company.
    I have also sent the management company an email requesting another dog inspection service. It would be wonderful if they agreed to send a more experienced dog handler.
    I'm going to read your PM right not, DougSummerMS.
    Thanks again!
  21. jmc1
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Tue May 3 2011 1:37:41
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    I have had 2 inspections- one first positive hit on my bed and 3 pieces of furniture; then a week later; another k9; with no treatment in between; and a negative inspection. No visuals have been found- but I am really upset with this. I am not sure what to do. The negative inspecition result- that company won't treat without a positive; the other company is more than willing to treat for about 2k- but they had no visual. I am not sure what to do.
  22. BBJames
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Tue May 3 2011 2:10:55
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    jmc1,
    You should confirm visual conformation of live activity from your inspector. These days with all the petty scams going on, you should inspect your inspector, as he or she inspects your issue. You should only agree to a treatment after they have shown you a positive confirmation of bed bugs. No visual.... No money spent....
    I would call the K-9 company that said they had a confirmed BB visual during the inspection, and simply ask for documented proof of what their findings were. Then explain for the cost of their treatment you would need visual proof. If they are being truthful, they will meet your needs at no additional cost, knowing a visual conformation will lock in a service treatment for $2400.00
    I would look into some inexpensive monitoring devices, which may help confirm yea or nea.
    Good Luck
  23. Grateful for Help
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Mon May 16 2011 22:47:13
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    Nobugsonme - 3 weeks ago  » 
    cilecto - 1 hour ago  » 
    A can of poisson? Are we getting snooty about our "poulet de la mer", now?
    If they're trying to kill bed bugs with a can of fish, things are worse even than I thought.
    Nice catch, Ci.
    Oh, gosh. Thanks for the laugh. Ou, peut-etre, Merci pour le rire!!!
  24. tangler
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Sun Jun 12 2011 11:15:44
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    Question: If I were to hire one of these guys then, should I expect the dog to be roaming then? or would the technician be pointing everywhere right away? Also, when a dog checks a room, will it sniff all around the room or would it sniff only in a few higher possible locations before finishing?
    Sorry if my questions are a little unclear. I'm a bit of a noob at this.... just want a better idea of what to expect.
  25. buggyinsocal
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    Posted 4 years ago
    Sun Jun 12 2011 11:47:37
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    Tangler,
    I didn't use K9 detection, so I cannot speak to a lot of the specifics of it. But I can talk about three things that may be useful.
    1. The mark of any good dog/handler team is that when the dog alerts, the handler should follow up with visual inspection of that spot to confirm the hit.
    2. We have an FAQ on things you should know before hiring a bed bug detection dog/handler team that I would suggest reading if you haven't already done so.
    3. You might search the forum to see if anyone else here has used a dog/handler team where you live and has reviews--positive and/or negative. If you type your city and dog or your city and K9 into the search box, you may get lucky and find reviews from folks in your neck of the woods. (If you already thought of that, or you are already pretty good at searching, I apologize for stating the obvious, but it can be hard for us to tell what people have and haven't done before posting.).
    Hope that helps.
 
 

File:Bed bug nymph, Cimex lectularius.jpg
 
 
Bed bugs are not vectors in nature of any known human disease. Although some disease organisms have been recovered from bed bugs under laboratory conditions, none have been shown to be transmitted by bed bugs outside of the laboratory.
The common bed bug is found worldwide. Infestations are common in the developing world, occurring in settings of unsanitary living conditions and severe crowding. In North America and Western Europe, bed bug infestations became rare during the second half of the 20th century and have been viewed as a condition that occurs in travelers returning from developing countries. However, anecdotal reports suggest that bed bugs are increasingly common in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
An immature bed bug may take several months to mature to an adult and an adult bed bug can live for up to one year. During development, the young bed bug will feed frequently on the blood of humans, and can exist for many months between blood meals. Bed bugs inject saliva into the blood stream of their host to thin the blood, and to prevent coagulation. It is this saliva that causes the intense itching and welts. The delay in the onset of itching gives the feeding bed bug time to escape into cracks and crevices. In some cases, the itchy bites can develop into painful welts that last several days.
The common bed bug C. lectularius is a wingless, red-brown, blood-sucking insect that grows up to 7 mm in length and has a lifespan from 4 months up to 1 year. Bed bugs hide in cracks and crevices in beds, wooden furniture, floors, and walls during the daytime and emerge at night to feed on their preferred host, humans.

We recommend you Hire an Independent Licensed Home Inspector as we only inspect for Termites
Carpenter Ants  Carpenter Bees and Damage caused by Wood Destroying Insects.


THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE BUYING REAL ESTATE

ABANDONED IN GROUND OIL TANK
 Make sure that there is not an abandoned oil tank in the ground, particularly if you're buying an older house. An abandoned oil tank that still has oil in it will someday leak causing an environmental problem. The average cost of an oil tank contamination cleanup in New Jersey is twenty five thousand and up. The only way that one can be sure that there is not an abandoned tank is to have a tank search made with a special metal detector. The cost of the search is about two hundred to two hundred and fifty dollars. However, before you pay for the cost of a search, there are a few things you can do to investigate the matter at no cost.

 1. Ask the seller to provide certification that there is no in ground oil tank and have the seller pay for it.
 2. If there was a tank and it was decommissioned properly and the seller can provide the proper documentation, there is no problem.
 3. Ask the home inspector, as a courtesy, to look for signs of an abandoned tank while conducting the home inspection. Some obvious signs would be:
 (a) filler or vent lines sticking out of the ground
 (b) copper oil feed lines coming through the wall of the basement
 (c) an abandoned feed line where the old furnace was located.
 If any of these signs are noted, insist on a tank search and removal, and proper certification that the property is environmentally acceptable.




 IN-GROUND WORKING TANK - If the heating system has an in- ground working tank, have it checked for leaks. One of the big mistakes people make with an in-ground working tank is to not have it checked. Often, the owner has tank insurance and the insurance can be passed to the next owner. That all sounds great but does the insurance cover ground contamination? Many or should I say most oil tank insurance policies only cover the cost of the tank replacement and not ground contamination. If you're getting a insurance policy for the tank, have your attorney check the policy for both removal and contamination clean up.

PERMITS - When buying a house, a permit search should be conducted, particularly if the house has been remodeled or updated. The following are areas that would require permits in most municipalities: a new addition, a new bathroom, a new or remodeled kitchen, a finished attic or basement, a new heating system, a new central air system, an update of the plumbing or electrical system, or any other type of repair or update. To purchase a house where major work has been done without permits could cause the buyer some serious problems later when selling or remodeling.
 To protect the buyer, G Warren Inc Home Inspections, when inspecting older houses, very often will suggest that a permit search be conducted, even though permit searches or requirements is outside the scope of a home inspection. The following are two quick stories about permit problems as related to construction and a plumbing update, both installed without permits.

FINISHED ATTIC PROBLEM - Edison, New Jersey: A woman bought an older colonial that was in really good condition, the previous owner was an excellent carpenter that kept the house well maintained. About a year after she moved in, she decided to finish the attic area and applied for a permit. When the township inspector came to the house to inspect for the permit he gave her some shocking news. The two window dormers in the attic were illegal construction; no permits were obtained for their construction. The inspector informed her that the construction of the dormer did not meet code and would have to be re-framed. Needless to say, the seller was nowhere to be found and the re-framing of the dormer to meet code was a substantial added expense

 PLUMBING PROBLEM - Dunellen, New Jersey: A retired lady decided to sell her house and move to another state where she had children living. The realtor found a good buyer and everything was going along smoothly until the township inspector arrived for the certificate of occupancy inspection. The inspector found all new plumbing had been installed without a permit. To obtain a C of O the woman would have to take out a plumbing permit and have a licensed plumber certify the plumbing. It seems that the plumbing nightmare began when her brother , a licensed plumber, did the complete job without a permit and passed away without ever getting the permit. The woman did get a plumber to certify someone else's work; a task which was very expensive and not easy. Needless to say, the hold up for the C of O affected the mortgage rate, the commitment, the attorney's closing date, and the movers moving date.

VACANT HOUSE PURCHASE - The following are some special cautions to take when buying a vacant dwelling:

 1. Ensure that all the utilities are turned on and functional. Make sure the water, electric and the heating system are functional before ordering a home inspection. If any one of these systems is not functional at the time of inspection, the house should not be inspected. To purchase a home without a through inspection of any one of the utilities could lead to some very expensive repairs. For example, if the water is not turned on, none of the plumbing, the bathrooms, the hot water heater, the dishwasher, the kitchen sink and possibly the complete heating system can not be inspected. The home inspector is only responsible for what can be inspected the day of inspection. If he has to return to inspect something that was not available for inspection at the time of inspection, there is an extra charge.
 2. Many times vacant houses have been vacant for a long time and are sold at what appears to be a great price. However, vacant houses sometimes develop some hidden problems that eliminate the savings. Some hidden problems may be:
 a. Broken or leaking pipes in the wall that are not visible
 b. Sheet rock or plaster damage to the walls or ceilings caused by improper heating. (If the house was not being heated and the house interior temperature dropped to the freezing point, the result can be some serious damage.)
 c. Animals, such as squirrels, birds, or raccoons, have moved into the attic.
 To be sure that the bargain price on a vacant house is really a bargain, we have two recommendations: First, get a good home inspection, and second, get exact repair cost of any repairs that the inspector recommends. In other words, don't guess at repairs for which there could be hidden costs.
 3. A house that has been vacant for a long time (over a year) one should really try to find out why it remained vacant for so long. One should investigate the following:
 a. Was the house over priced? Houses that are priced right usually sell.
 b. Is it an estate sale? Most times the house can't be sold till the estate is settled.
 c. Is there a structural problem?
 d. Is there an environmental problem? A vacant house with a water leak is a prime candidate for mold.
 e. Has there been an environmental clean up from a leaking in ground oil tank?
 f. Is there a termite damage problem?

TERMITE INSPECTION -  Never, never, never, buy a house in New Jersey without having a good thorough termite inspection. Eight out of ten houses we inspect have some type of termite damage. However, most of the time the damage we find is minor and can be fixed for a few hundred dollars. The houses with the serious damage are usually houses that have water penetration problems and have not been properly maintained. The following is some good information about termites and the termite inspection:

 1. Don't panic and lose a good house because it has termites. As mentioned earlier, usually the termite damage can be repaired and with the modern termite treatment termites are easy to eliminate.
 2. Check with your mortgage company and find out if you need a clear termite certification to obtain a mortgage particularly if you are buying a condo. Most condo associations will repair any termite damage, but will not give a clear termite certification required by the mortgage company. The catch 22 is that you may find yourself in a situation where you're buying a condo located on the second floor where you know there are no termites, yet the mortgage company wants a clear termite certification. If you find yourself in this position, hire a termite inspector and get the clear termite certificate.
 3. Always have a house inspected for termites and always hire your own termite inspector. The seller may have a termite treatment contract and insurance policy but that doesn't mean there is no damage. It is not uncommon for a dwelling to have termite damage that has not been repaired even though there is a treatment contract and insurance policy. We also suggest that you, the buyer, read the disclosure statement to see if any termite repair work was done, and, if so, how extensive was the repair.

RADON - First of all, I recommend that you don't terminate the purchase of a good house over a high radon reading. Simply defined, radon gas is a natural form of radioactive gas, which is developed by the decay of granite rock and certain soils. As per the EPA, if the radon level in the home is equal to or greater than 4 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) it is dangerous to your health. The radon test is conducted in the lowest living level of the house and the basement is considered a living level. Years ago, when radon was first discovered, the installation of a radon venting system was very expensive, and a house with high radon was hard to sell. Today the cost of a radon venting system is very reasonable and appears to have little or no effect on the resale value of a house. In other words, don't let a high radon level stop you from buying a house, but you would certainly want the seller to pay for the venting system. The exact price of a radon venting system, (mitigation system) varies according to the size of the house and whether or not the house has a sump pump or French drain. However, to give the reader an idea of price, the average cost is between fifteen hundred ($1500) and two thousand ($2000) dollars. All this can be summarized by saying that once a proper venting system is installed in a house with high level of radon, that's the end of the radon problem.
SELLER'S DISCLOSURE STATEMENT -  Most realtor today require a disclosure statement from the seller. The purpose of the disclosure statement is to have the seller disclose any problems that are not readily observable, or any serious problems that have been repaired. A smart buyer will obtain a copy of the disclosure statement and study it in detail before spending one cent for inspections. There may have been repairs or a present condition that you, the buyer, may not want to deal with after the purchase. Everything is fixable, but for some buyers any type of repair is too much fixing. The standard New Jersey realtor disclosure statement is very detailed and informative. Click on the following web site for an example of the New Jersey realtor association disclosure statement.

 http://www.betterhomesnj.com/pdf/SELLERS_PROPERTY_CONDITION_DISCLOSURE_STATEMENT.pdf
EIFS SIDING - If the house you are buying has EIFS (Exterior Insulation Finish Systems) siding, it must be inspected by a EIFS specialist and the inspection is expensive. This type of siding has a history of water penetration which results in wood rot and mold problems. When water penetrates this type of siding, the foam insulation behind the siding act like a sponge that traps and retains water and moisture which causes wood rot and mold problems. EIFS siding has such a poor reputation for causing serious wood rot and mold damage, that it is not unheard of for a seller to remove the EIFS siding and replace it with a standard type siding to sell the house. One more word of caution, do not accept a price reduction to replace the EIFS siding without knowing the exact condition of the structure behind the siding. The last thing you need as the new owner is to find out that the repair cost of any wood rot and or mold damage is ten times the price allowance. To find out more about EIFS siding, click the Christian Building Inspectors of Georgia site address below. They have a great site for EIFS information.

http://www.christianbuildinginspectors.com/index8c.htm
 SEPTIC SYSTEM - Although a leaking roof is probably the most common repair, one of the most expensive items to replace is a septic system. I don't know about the rest of the country, but in New Jersey a septic system costs, on the average, from forty to sixty thousand dollars. For that reason, it's imperative that you hire a professional licensed septic system inspector. This should be the case especially if the house is an older home with the original septic system. A through septic system inspection will involve tanking the tank top off, inspecting the tank, and flooding the fields with two to three hundred gallons of water to test the absorption rate of the field. The following are some question to ask before you finalize the contract to purchase:
 1. Where is the septic system located? It may be located right where you want to install a swimming pool or another structure.
 2. How old is the tank and field. A field that is over twenty years old might have been abused. You could need a replacement. To quote Ted Louden's article from the Michigan State University Agricultural Engineering newspaper.
 "Studies that just look at averages without regard to quality of construction or how the system is utilized show that the average life of a septic system is 20 years or more. This is the time period until the system becomes sufficiently clogged with organic material that it either results in effluent coming to the soil surface or backing up in the plumbing and reducing the efficiency of flow from the home. Well constructed, well maintained systems will last longer."
 http://www.egr.msu.edu/age/aenewsletter/1_may_june_02/loudon.htm

 Also a tank that has been just pumped out could be another sign of trying to extend the life of the system.
 3. Have there been any problems with the toilets backing up? If so, what was the problem? Toilet back-up is one of the first signs of a septic system problem. I am not saying because a toilet gets blocked or backs up there is a septic problem, but it could be a sign of trouble with the system.
 4. One last tip on inspections, I don't recommend that you do all your inspections on the same day all at once. Do the inspections one at a time. A full home and termite inspection may also call for a pool inspection, septic inspection, in-ground tank inspection, and others. If one of the inspections reveals a serious problem and you decide not to go ahead with the purchase, you have not yet paid for the additional inspections.
 For some excellent information on septic systems, click the public educational site below.

http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-22/
WELL WATER - Well water testing in New Jersey is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In September, 2002, the Private Well Testing Act was instituted. To quote a small important section of the act, "Every contract of sale of real property the potable water supply for which there is a private well located on the property shall include a provision requiring, as a condition of sale, the testing of the water." In other words, every time a house with a well is sold, the well must be tested by a licensed EPA approved testing laboratory and the well must be tested for all the parameters outlined by the EPA. Normally the seller of the property pays for the well testing and provides the necessary documents for the sale of the property. I personally think this is a very good law that has saved many a family from health problems from a contaminated well.
 For more detailed information or the requirements to comply with to private well testing act, click on the EPA address below.
http://www.state.nj.us/dep/newsrel/releases/02_0081.htm













Master Technician Explains the Process of Inspecting and Evaluating Mosquitoes
in your Basement, Garage, Shed and Decking, and Yard



ELIMINEX Residential and Commercial Exterminating NJ

Call for a free inspection

732-640-5488         732-309-4209

House Mouse | Deer Mice | Field Mice | Squirrel | Mosquito | Cockroach Exterminators NJ

Free Inspection Squirrel Trapping and Repairs / Exclusion with up to a 2 year warranty

Eliminex Exterminators are Accredited Better Business A+
Eliminex Exterminators are NJ State Licensed and Insured by DEPE and Wildlife Control #97469A

Real Estate Certificate for Termite Inspection $145 for central NJ

Can visit our termite website directly at
http://www.newjerseypest.com/Termites.html

732-309-4209

Average sized home for a Termite Treatment ranges from $725 - $865
Can Add Free Installation 4 Termite Bait Stations by ADVANCE TBS
with 3 times a year Service and Monitoring for a fee to provide a year round termite warranty

Call to schedule and inspection 732-309-4209

One Time treatments for General Insect Pests from a 30 day to 1 year warranty

We also Provide Year Round Service for General Insect Pests and Rodents

Squirrel Trapping and Removal with Repairs comes with option of 6 month and 2 Year Warranty

Mice Exterminating for an average size home we have a promotion providing a 90 day Guarantee with the option to also add exclusion and seal up providing a full unlimited 1 Year Warranty

Attic Cleanup Decontamination is also available after trapping for $2 per square foot (400 sf minimum)

Call to schedule and inspection 732-640-5488

Bed Bug Treatment special we are promoting is the first room for $445 and each additional room for $175. Follow up treatments for bigger bed bug infestations are optional. Call for details

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Explanation by the professionals of the feeding habits and reproduction Termites and Tubing New Jersey


Behaviour



Eating
House mice usually run, walk, or stand on all fours, but when eating, fighting, or orienting themselves, they rear up on their hind legs with additional support from the tail - a behaviour known as "tripoding". Mice are good jumpers, climbers, and swimmers, and are generally considered to be thigmotactic, i.e. usually attempts to maintain contact with vertical surfaces.
Mice are mostly crepuscular or nocturnal; they are averse to bright lights. The average sleep time of a captive house mouse is reported to be 12.5 hours per day.[citation needed] They live in a wide variety of hidden places near food sources, and construct nests from various soft materials. Mice are territorial, and one dominant male usually lives together with several females and young. Dominant males respect each other's territories and normally enter another's territory only if it is vacant. If two or more males are housed together in a cage, they often become aggressive unless they have been raised together from birth.
House mice primarily feed on plant matter, but are omnivorous.They eat their own faeces to acquire nutrients produced by bacteria in their intestines.] House mice, like most other rodents, do not vomit.
Mice are generally afraid of rats which often kill and eat them, a behavior known as muricide. Despite this, free-living populations of rats and mice do exist together in forest areas in New ZealandNorth America, and elsewhere. House mice are generally poor competitors and in most areas cannot survive away from human settlements in areas where other small mammals, such as wood mice, are present. However, in some areas (such as Australia), mice are able to coexist with other small rodent species

Social behaviour

The social behaviour of the house mouse is not rigidly fixed into species-specific patterns but is instead adaptable to the environmental conditions, such as the availability of food and space.[24][25] This adaptability allows house mice to inhabit diverse areas ranging from sandy dunes to apartment buildings.
House mice have two forms of social behaviour, the expression of which depends on the environmental context. House mice in buildings and other urbanized areas with close proximity to humans are known as commensal.] Commensal mice populations often have an excessive food source resulting in high population densities and small home ranges. This causes a switch from territorial behaviour to a hierarchy of individuals. When populations have an excess of food, there is less female-female aggression, which usually occurs to gain access to food or to prevent infanticide. Male-male aggression occurs in commensal populations, mainly to defend female mates and protect a small territory.The high level of male-male aggression, with a low female-female aggression level is common in polygamous populations The social unit of commensal house mouse populations generally consists of one male and two or more females, usually related. These groups breed cooperatively, with the females communally nursing. This cooperative breeding and rearing by related females helps increase reproductive success. When no related females are present, breeding groups can form from non-related females.
In open areas such as shrubs and fields, the house mouse population is known as noncommensal. These populations are often limited by water or food supply and have large territories.[25] Female-female aggression in the noncommensal house mouse populations is much higher, reaching a level generally attributed to free-ranging species. Male aggression is also higher in noncommensal populations. In commensal populations, males come into contact with other males quite frequently due to high population densities and aggression must be mediated or the risk of injury becomes too great.
Both commensal and noncommensal house mouse males aggressively defend their territory and act to exclude all intruders. Males mark their territory by scent marking with urine. In marked territories, intruders showed significantly lower aggression than the territory residents.House mice show a male-biased dispersal; males generally leave their birth sites and migrate to form new territories whereas females generally stay and are opportunistic breeders rather than seasona




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 - A.D.A.M.
An engorged bedbug after a blood meal. A.D.A.M.

Updated February 01, 2016.

What are Bedbugs?

Bedbugs, scientific name Cimex lectularius, are a flat wingless insect, typically of a brown or reddish color. It is typically about half of a centimeter in length (about half the size of a dime). These insects are blood-sucking parasites, and usually feed at night – mostly on people. Feedings typically last about 5 to 10 minutes, and these insects can go months between meals, making them difficult to eradicate.
Bedbugs can be difficult to find, as they tend to hide during the day, although can leave clues to their presence. These include black specks on sheets and mattresses, which are a mix of droppings and other body parts. These insects tend to be found in hotels, homeless shelters, and overcrowd areas, although can also be found in areas of high socioeconomic status.

Do Bedbugs Cause Rashes?

Bedbug bites can be mistaken for allergic rashes, especially urticaria. Bites appear as itchy bumps on skin that is uncovered while sleeping. The rash may be grouped in a line, which shows the pattern of the insect feeding. Bumps tend to be redder in the morning and fade later in the day.

Can I Be Allergic to Bedbugs?

Most people bitten by bedbugs assume that they have experienced an allergic reaction to something. The reaction is typically an irritant effect to the insect bite, and not an allergy. While most people are not allergic to bedbugs, there are rare reports of anaphylaxisoccurring as a result of bedbug bites.

What Can Be Done for Bedbug Bites?

Physicians may misdiagnose bedbug bites as allergic reactions, and treat people with steroid pills, creams or antihistamines.
While antihistamines may decrease the itching associated with the insect bites, these medications will not make the rash go away.Steroid creams, such as hydrocortisone (Cortaid, for example), can help the itch and rash resolve quickly.

Do Bedbugs Cause Other Problems?

If the bumps from bedbugs are scratched to the point of breaking the skin, the bite may become infected.
This may appear as increased pain, redness or oozing at the site, and may worsen, rather than get better, over time. If this occurs, immediate medical attention is needed.
It appears possible that bedbugs may be able to transmit the hepatitis B virus, as this virus has been found in bedbug droppings.
Bedbugs may also be able to transmit the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causesChagas Disease.

What Can I Do About Bedbugs?

The best way to deal with bedbugs is by extermination. Professional pest control companies can assist with the extermination process, usually with pesticide treatments. Sleeping in long-sleeved shirts and pants may decrease the amount of skin available to be bitten, and some studies suggest that using insect repellents containing DEET may prevent the insects from biting.

BIG BROWN BAT
This medium-sized bat ranges from 4 to 5 in (10–13 cm) in body length, with an 11- to 13-in (28- to 33-cm) wingspan, and weighs between 1/2 and 5/8 oz (14-16 g). The fur is moderately long and shiny brown. The wing membranes, ears, feet, and face are dark brown to blackish in color.
Big brown bats are nocturnal, roosting during the day in hollow trees, beneath loose tree bark, in the crevices of rocks, or in man-made structures such as attics, barns, old buildings, eaves, and window shutters. Big brown bats navigate through the night skies by use of echolocation, producing ultrasonic sounds through the mouth or nose. They are known also to produce audible sound during flight, a click or a sound like escaping steam.

Diet[edit]

Big brown bats are insectivorous, eating many kinds of night-flying insects including moths,beetles, and wasps which they capture in flight. This causes the sudden, frequent changes in direction.

Hibernation[edit]

Big brown bats hibernate during the winter months, often in different locations from their summer roosts. Winter roosts tend to be natural subterranean locations such as caves and underground mines where temperatures remain stable; where a large majority of these bats spend the winter is still unknown. If the weather warms enough, they may awaken to seek water, and even breed.

Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roost in a Minnesota barn.

Lifecycle[edit]

Big brown bats mate sporadically from November through March. After the breeding season, pregnant females separate themselves into maternity colonies. In the eastern United States, twins are commonly born sometime in June; in western North America, females give birth to only one pup each year
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea. Termites were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches, but recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic. It is possible, however, that the first termites emerged during the Permian or even the Carboniferous. Approximately 3,106 species are currently described, with a few hundred more left to be described. Although these insects are often called white ants, they are not ants.
Like ants and some bees and wasps, which are in a separate order, Hymenoptera, termites divide labour among castes that consist of sterile male and female "workers" and "soldiers". All termite colonies have fertile males called "kings" and one or more fertile females called "queens". Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung. Termites are major detritivores, particularly in the subtropical andtropical regions, and their recycling of wood and plant matter is of considerable ecological importance.
Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth, colonising most landmasses except for Antarctica. Their colonies range in size from a couple of hundred individuals to enormous societies with several million individuals. Termite queens have the longest lifespan of any insect in the world, with some queens living up to 50 years. Unlike ants, which undergo a complete metamorphosis, each individual termite goes through an incomplete metamorphosis that proceeds through egg, nymph and adult stages. Colonies are described as superorganismsbecause the termites form part of a self-regulating entity: the colony itself.[1]
Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings, crops or plantation forests. Some species, such as the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), are regarded as invasive species.


Etymology[edit]

The infraorder name is derived from the Greek words iso (equal) and ptera (winged), which refers to the nearly equal size of the fore-wings and hind-wings.[2] The name "termite" derives from theLatin and Late Latin word termes ("woodworm, white ant"), altered by the influence of Latin terere("to rub, wear, erode") from the earlier word tarmes. Termite nests were commonly known asterminarium or termitaria.[3][4] In early English, termites were known as wood ants or white ants.[3]The modern term was first used in 1781.[5]

Taxonomy and phylogeny[edit]

The giant northern termite is the most primitive living termite. Its body plan has been described as a cockroach's abdomen stuck to a termite's fore part. Its wings have the same form as roach wings, and like roaches, it lays its eggs in a case.

The external appearance of the giant northern termiteMastotermes darwiniensis is suggestive of the close relationship between termites and cockroaches
DNA analysis from 16S rRNA sequences[6] has supported a hypothesis, originally suggested by Cleveland and colleagues in 1934, that these insects are most closely related to the wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus, the woodroach). This earlier conclusion had been based on the similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in the wood-eating cockroaches to those in certain species of termites regarded as living fossils.[7] In the 1960s additional evidence supporting that hypothesis emerged when F. A. McKittrick noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and Cryptocercus nymphs.[8] These similarities have led some authors to propose that termites be reclassified as a single family, Termitidae, within the order Blattodea, which contains cockroaches.[9][10] Other researchers advocate the more conservative measure of retaining the termites as Termitoidae, an epifamily within the cockroach order, which preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[11]


Fossilised Nanotermes isaacaetermite alate in Cambay amber
The oldest unambiguous termite fossils date to the early Cretaceous, but given the diversity of Cretaceous termites and early fossil records showing mutualism between microorganisms and these insects, it is likely that they originated at least in the Jurassic or Triassic.[12][13][14] Further evidence of a Jurassic origin is the assumption that the extinct Fruitafossor consumed termites, judging from its morphological similarity to modern termite-eating mammals.[15]
Claims for an earlier time period for the emergence of termites stand on controversial footing. For example, F. M. Weesner indicated that Mastotermitidae termites may go back to the Late Permian, 251 million years ago,[16] and fossil wings that have a close resemblance to the wings of Mastotermes of the Mastotermitidae, the most primitive living termite, have been discovered in the Permian layers in Kansas.[17] It is even possible that the first termites emerged during theCarboniferous.[18] Termites are thought to be the descendants of the genus Cryptocercus.[9] The folded wings of the fossil wood roach Pycnoblattina, arranged in a convex pattern between segments 1a and 2a, resemble those seen in Mastotermes, the only living insect with the same pattern.[17] On the other hand, Krishna et al. consider that all of the Paleozoic and Triassic insects tentatively classified as termites are in fact unrelated to termites and should be excluded from the Isoptera.[19]


Evolutionary Relationships of Blattodea, showing the placement of some termite families
It has long been accepted that termites are closely related to cockroaches and mantids, and they are classified in the same superorder (Dictyoptera).[20][21] There is strong evidence suggesting that termites are highly specialised wood-eating cockroaches.[22] The cockroach genusCryptocercus shares the strongest phylogenetical similarity with termites and is considered to be a sister-group to termites.[23][24] Termites and Cryptocercus share similar morphological and social features: for example, most cockroaches do not exhibit social characteristics, butCryptocercus takes care of its young and exhibits other social behaviour such as trophallaxis andallogrooming.[25] The primitive giant northern termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) exhibits numerous cockroach-like characteristics that are not shared with other termites, such as laying its eggs in rafts and having anal lobes on the wings.[26] Cryptocercidae and Isoptera are united in the clade Xylophagodea.[27]
Although termites are sometimes called "white ants", they are actually not ants. Ants belong to the family Formicidae within the order Hymenoptera. The similarity of their social structure to that of termites is attributed to convergent evolution.[28] The oldest termite nest discovered is believed to be from the Upper Cretaceous in west Texas, where the oldest known faecal pellets were also discovered.[29]
As of 2013, about 3,106 living and fossil termite species are recognised, classified in 12 families. The infraorder Isoptera is divided into the following clade and family groups, showing the subfamilies in their respective classification


TIGER MOSQUITOES NEW JERSEY 732-309-4209

Feeding & reproduction[change | change source]

Usually both male and female mosquitoes feed on nectar and plant juices. In many species the mouthparts of the females are adapted for piercing the skin of animal hosts and sucking their blood as ectoparasites. In many species, the female needs to get proteins from a blood meal before she can produce eggs. In many other species, she can produce more eggs after a blood meal.
They lay their eggs in pools of water. The larvae move around near the surface of the water, breathing through air tubes that stick out of the water. They get their food from the water, usually eating algae and other tiny creatures. They like to wiggle around near the surface, which is why some people call them wigglers. The larvae usually enter the pupa stage within a few days or weeks of hatching, depending on the water temperature and the species. [3]
The pupae are called tumblers because they tumble in the water if the water is touched. Tumblers do not eat, but they move around in the water a lot, and like larvae, they breathe from tubes that stick out of the water. The pupa stage is short (only for a few days), and then the mosquito becomes an adult.
There are many species of mosquito. This comes about because, of those which suck blood, each species is adapted to a different host or group of hosts. There are two subfamilies, 43 genera and over 3,500 species of the Culicidae.[4]

Vectors for disease[change | change source]

Mosquitoes are a vector (carrier) which carries disease-causing viruses and parasites from person to person.
The principal mosquito borne diseases are the viral diseases yellow feverdengue fever and malaria carried by the genera Anopheles and Culex. Mosquitoes transmit disease to more than 700 million people annually inAfricaSouth AmericaCentral AmericaMexico and much of Asia with millions of resulting deaths.[5][6]

Mosquito control[change | change source]



Dragonflies are natural predators of mosquitoes.
Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where disease is endemic include:
  1. Vector control aimed at mosquito eradication. Habitat change: removing stagnant water and other breeding areas; pesticides; natural predators; and trapping.
  2. Disease prevention, using prophylactic drugs and vaccines; and preventing mosquito bites, with insecticidesnets and repellents.

Water[change | change source]

Standing water, as in a pond or lake, is the main breeding ground. It may or may not be practical to eliminate this water. The water in bird baths can be changed once a week, but one can hardly do that with larger bodies of water. The method used to be: spray water with DDT, but that does a lot of damage, and in any event the mosquito is now highly resistant to the chemical.

Organic repellents[change | change source]

With increasing reports of the harmful effects DEET has on humans, there has been a move to repellents which are organic. These are of the kind that have had traditional household purposes before their being used as mosquito repellents.[7]

Natural predators[change | change source]

The dragonfly nymph eats mosquitoes at all stages of development and is quite effective in controlling populations.[8] Some copepods are predators on first instar larvae, killing up to 40 Aedes larvae per day.[9] A number of fish eat mosquito larvae, including goldfishcatfishpiranhas, and minnows.

Termites are an order of social insects, the Isoptera. They are sometimes called "white ants", incorrectly, because ants belong to the Order Hymenoptera.
They are eusocial animals, as are ants and some bees and wasps. Termites mostly feed on detritus, mostly wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung. There are an estimated 4,000 species (about 2,600 taxonomically known). About 10% are pests which can cause serious structural damage to buildings, crops or plantation forests.
Termites are major detrivores in the subtropical and tropical regions. Their recycling of wood and other plant matter is very important for ecology.
A termite colony starts when winged termites (called alates) swarm and mate. After mating, they fall to the ground and rip off their wings. The female looks for a good place to start the colony, and the male follows her. Most termites nest underground their entire lives, but termites in Africa and Australia actually build really big mound structures that look like little mountains and can be more than 20 feet tall (see photo below).
Termites live in colonies that, at maturity, hold from several hundred to several million individuals. They are a prime example self-organised systems which use swarm intelligence. They use this cooperation to exploit food sources and environments which would not be available to any single insect acting alone. A typical colony contains nymphs (semi-mature young), workers, soldiers, and reproductive individuals of both genders, sometimes containing several egg-laying queens

Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4--5 mm (0.16--0.20 in) long and 1.5--3 mm (0.059--0.118 in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions. Below 16.1 °C (61.0 °F), adults enter semi hibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at −10 °C (14 °F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to −32 °C (−26 °F). Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at −12 °C (10 °F).[18] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35--40 °C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.


SQUIRREL DAMAGE: STRUCTURAL AND CONTAMINATION

Eastern Grey Squirrels commonly enter houses either by chewing holes along the facia or in dormer corners, or by entering any existing gaps 1-2 inches in diameter. Once inside they may chew on electrical wiring or phone lines, displace or pack down and soil insulation, and make noise with their activities. The best way to rid squirrel problems is to first remove the problem squirrels by trapping and relocating and then patching holes to prevent further problems. Trimming any trees away from the house is also a good idea.

Squirrels occasionally damage lawns by burying or searching for and digging up nuts . They will chew bark and clip twigs on ornamental trees or shrubbery planted in yards. Often squirrels take food at bird feeders. Sometimes they chew to enlarge openings of bird houses and they enter to eat nestling songbirds. Flying squirrels are small enough to enter most bird houses and are especially likely to eat nesting birds.

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